How to measure dyspnea in acute heart failure


Abstract:  Dyspnea is the most common presenting symptom of patients with acute heart failure (AHF). Although dyspnea is an important target for treatment in clinical practice and clinical trials, there remains a lack of consensus on how to assess it. We describe and recommend to use absolute scales such the Likert 5-point or the Visual Analogue Scale rather than any comparator scale such as the Likert 7-point scale. We further recommend starting dyspnea measurements in sitting position and perform, if possible, similar measurements in lying position.


Journal: Therapeautische Umschau


2009 Sep;66(9):639-42.

Resource Type:

Journal Article


Socrates T, Mebazaa A.